Daily Archives: July 10, 2016

FAT32 vs. NTFS vs. exFAT – Difference Between Three File Systems

What Is A File System?

A file system is basically a set of rules used to decide how data is stored and fetched in a storage device, be it a hard drive, flash drive or something else. Like the conventional way we used to store data in our offices in different files, the same method is deployed in computing. A defined set of data called a ‘File’ is stored at a specified location in a storage device. If the file system is kicked out of the computing world, all we will be left with is a large chunk of unrecognizable data in our storage media.

There are many type of files systems available for different types of storage options like the Disk File System, Flash File System, Tape File System, and so on. But for now, I’ll be restricting myself with the three Disk File Systems FAT32, NTFS, and ExFAT.

What Is FAT32 File System?

Standing for File Allocation Table, it’s the oldest and the most experienced file system in the history of computing. The story started in 1977 with the original 8-bit FAT file system intended as an antecedent to Microsoft’s Standalone Disk Basic-80, which was launched for Intel 8080-based NCR 7200 in 1977/1978, a data entry terminal with 8-inch floppy disks. It was coded by Marc McDonald following discussions with Microsoft’s co-founder Bill Gates.

Further utilization of the FAT File System or FAT Structure as it was called referred earlier, was done in Microsoft’s 8080/Z80 platform-based operating system MDOS/MIDAS written by Marc McDonald, who was Microsoft’s first salaried employee. In the subsequent years, the FAT file system advanced to FAT12, FAT16 and finally FAT32 that has been synonymous to the word file system when we have to deal external storage media like removable drives.

FAT32 was a surmount to the limited volume size offered by the FAT16 file system. The 32-bit File Allocation Table was released in August 1995, with the Windows 95 operating system. It allows you to store files of size up to 4 Gigs and the maximum disk size can go up to 16TB.

So, the fatty file system can’t be used to install heavy apps or store large files, that’s why the modern Windows uses a new file system known as NTFS, for which we don’t have to worry about the file size and disk size limits.

The FAT32 file system is perfect for storage devices like flash drives but you’ll have to make sure you don’t have an individual file larger than 4 GB. It has been widely implemented beyond the realm of computers, like gaming consoles, HDTVs, DVD & Blu-Ray players, and practically any device with a USB port. All versions of Windows, Linux support the FAT32 file system, even Apple’s Mac provides complete support it.

What Is NTFS File System?

Another Microsoft proprietary file system was introduced in 1993 with their Windows NT 3.1 coming into existence. It offers inexhaustible file size limits and you won’t run out of it anytime soon. The development started in the mid-1980s as the result of an association between Microsoft and IBM to develop a new age operating system with better performance in terms of graphics. However, their friendship didn’t last longer and the two parted their ways consequently developing their own version of the new file system. IBM made HPFS which was used in the OS/2 operating system and the Redmond created NTFS v1.0 released with Windows NT 3.1.

The NTFS or New Technology File System offers a theoretical file size of 16 EB – 1 KB which is 18,446,744,073,709,550,592 bytes. Well, your files aren’t that much huge, I guess. Its development team included Tom Miller, Garry Kimura, Brian Andrew, and David Goebel. NTFS v3.1 was launched with Microsoft’s Windows XP and it hasn’t been changed much since then, although numerous additions like partition shrinking, self-healing, and NTFS Symbolic links have been added. Also, the implemented capacity of NTFS file system is only 256 TB out the whopping 16 EB – 1 KB which was done with the launch of Windows 8, for which Microsoft ended support last week and Windows Server 2012.

Other notable features include reparse points, sparse file support, disk usage quotas, distributed link tracking, and file-level encryption. The NTFS file system supports backward compatibility with the previous versions and it’s a journaling file system that proves to be an important tool when it comes to reviving a corrupt file system. It maintains a Journal, a data structure which keeps track of any potential modifications to the file system and is used to recover the file system.

This file system is supported by Windows XP and later versions. Apple’s Mac OSX provides read-only support to an NTFS-formatted drive and only a few Linux variants are able to provide write support for NTFS.

What Is exFAT File System?

The exFAT (Extended FAT) is another Microsoft proprietary file system which finds its use in ball games where the FAT32 feels out of breath. Most of the modern digital cameras use exFAT. High capacity SDXC memory cards are now pre-formatted with the exFAT, as it is lightweight in contrast to NTFS and supports file size more of than 4 GB. So, if you have an exFAT SD card you will have no issues while copying full-length HD movies on it which is not the case with FAT32.

Currently, Microsoft holds the US Patent 8321439 for Quick File Name Lookup using Name hash, is a method which escalates file search speed. They’ve not released a complete specification set for the exFAT file system, for which the vendors have to obtain a restricted license from Microsoft. Most of the countries recognize the US Patent Law and thus, any implementation of the exFAT file system is not possible for the vendors which intended to be a part of an open-source operating system or a commercial software.

Microsoft’s stubbornness to make the exFAT available freely has triggered the development of custom implementations of the file system. A FUSE-based version of the exFAT file system, named exfat-fuse, provides read/write operations for many Linux distributions including FreeBSD. A kernel based implementation made by Samsung was accidentally leaked on GitHub but was later published officially.

Launched in 2006, it has the same 16 EB file size limit as NTFS, but it is way lighter as it doesn’t contain many of the extra features that the latter has. Talking about the compatibility, full read and write support is provided by Mac, Android, and Windows operating system but for Linux distributions, the appropriate software facilitates the support.

NTFS vs FAT32 vs exFAT – Comparison


Compatibility: Windows, Mac, Linux, gaming consoles, practically any device with a USB port.

Pros: Cross-platform compatibility, lightweight.

Cons: Limited file size (upto 4GB) and partition size (upto 16TB)

Usage: Removable storage devices.


Compatibility: Windows, Mac (Read-only), Linux (read-only for some distributions), Microsoft Xbox One.

Pros: Inexhaustible limits for file and partition size.

Cons: Limited cross-platform compatibility.

Usage: Best for internal hard drives. Use it for Windows system drive and any other system partition which may be used to install software.


Compatibility: Windows XP and later versions, Mac OSX 10.6.5 and above, Linux (using FUSE), Android.

Pros: Behaves as a fusion between FAT32 and NTFS by providing practically unlimited file size and partition size.

Cons: Microsoft restricts its usage by license obligations.

Usage: Use with external hard drives or flash drives of you want to transfer files larger than 4 GB. Always prefer exFAT over FAT32 if the operating supports it.

source http://fossbytes.com/fat32-vs-ntfs-vs-exfat-difference-three-file-systems/

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Banana Skins – their promise as an industrial lubricant additive

The work of Kiyoshi Mabuchi, Kensei Tanaka, Daichi Uchijima and Rina Sakai, who were awarded the 2014 Ig Nobel Physics Prize for measuring the amount of friction between a shoe and a banana skin, and between a banana skin and the floor, when a person steps on a banana skin that’s on the floor, continues to gain traction. (See ‘Frictional Coefficient under Banana Skin’, Tribology Online, 7, no. 3, 2012, pp. 147-151.) It’s cited by A. H. Hamid et al. of the Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka, in a new study which examines the potential of banana skin as a lubricant additive for machinery :

“Banana skin has been often referred as slipping tools by the literature. Previous study had showed that coefficient of frictions under epicarp of banana skin; on the floor material is much lower to the value of common materials and similar to the well lubricated surface. During their study, they found that, lubricating effect of banana skin is contributed by existence of follicular gel which sized about a few micro meters.”

continue http://www.improbable.com/2016/07/08/banana-skins-their-promise-as-an-industrial-lubricant-additive/

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Rush Limbaugh dodged Vietnam draft due to a cyst on his ass

Rush Limbaugh looking healthy
Rush Limbaugh looking healthy
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Doctors confirm woman’s imaginary third arm

A 64-year-old woman has reported to doctors at Geneva University Hospital the presence of a pale, milky-white and translucent third arm.

After examining the case, the woman’s neurologist, Asaid Khateb of the hospital’s experimental neurophysiology laboratory, called the rare phenomenon credible.

The arm appeared to the woman a few days after suffering a stroke, doctors said.

But this case of what is known as a supernumerary phantom limb (SPL) is a genuine head-scratcher.

The upshot is that the woman can use the apparitional extremity to relieve very real itches on the cheek. It cannot penetrate solid objects.

She does not always perceive the arm but “retrieves” it when needed, doctors told the Swiss news agency.

It is nevertheless the first case known to doctors of a person being able to feel, see and deliberately move a limb that doesn’t exist. The findings are published in the Annals of Neurology.

continue http://www.swissinfo.ch/eng/doctors-confirm-woman-s-imaginary-third-arm/655352

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Twitter Gives Black Lives Matter Its Own “Emoji”

Here’s what the emoticon looks like up close. It’s three clenched fists in three shades of “brown.”

BLM emoji

You can try it … just go to Twitter and try to compose a new tweet. If you type in “#BlackLivesMatter” the emoticon will automatically appear. There’s apparently no way to remove the graphic, making it now impossible to express a negative opinion about the movement.

According to Breitbart, the emoji was introduced Saturday and users began reporting it around noon eastern time. The emoji bears a striking resemblance to the “Black power” symbol, but making it an emoji gives it a family-friendly connotation.

There’s no word on a “Blue Lives Matter” emoji.

continue http://www.thefederalistpapers.org/us/for-the-murder-of-five-police-officers-twitter-gives-black-lives-matter-its-own-emoji

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Murderous Mary, the elephant that was hanged for murder

On September 13, 1916, the town of Erwin, Tennessee, hung ‘Murderous Mary’ the elephant after she mauled one of her keepers to death the day before.

This is actually a macabre story of murder and revenge between an elephant and its inexperienced keeper. And it surely features the only elephant in history ever to have been hanged!

This horrifying story starts when Charlie Sparks’s circus train arrived in the small town of Kingsport, about 40 miles from Erwin, a booming American railroad town.

'Murderous Mary' the elephant, 'Murderous Mary' the elephant strange story and wtf photo, wtf photo of hung elephant, terrifying photo of hung elephant in Tennessee in 1916, On September 13 1916 the town of Erwin Tennessee hung 'Murderous Mary' the elephant after she mauled one of her keepers to death the day before, strange, weird, baffling photo, wtf photo of hanged elephant, hanged elephant terrifying photo, mysterious story of why murderous mary was hanged in Tennessee in 1916, Strange Story: The elephant murderous mary was hanged in Tennessee in 1916
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How To Make An Ice Cube Into A Battery

The future of air conditioning.


The future of air conditioning.

It’s summertime. That means beaches, bikinis, and rolling brownouts as power grids groan under the weight of overworked air conditioners.

The summer months are the most challenging for grid operators and consumers. Energy-intensive cooling units hoard power during peak hours when the price of electricity is at its highest.

Now, businesses and homeowners are embracing a different kind of air conditioner—one that can charge up overnight when power is plentiful, cheap and clean — to help users save money and grid operators avoid blackouts.

The idea behind ice storage air conditioners is simple: freeze water during the wee hours and use that stored ice to cool buildings all day long.

With CALMAC’s ice storage cooling, a glycol solution runs through a chiller at night. The liquid coolant then passes through a tube in a tank of water, freezing its contents over a period of six to 12 hours. During the day, the cold glycol solution runs through a heat exchange coil, chilling the air. A fan blows the cool air into an air duct. The coolant continually passes through the tank of ice to stay chilled.

At night, coolant passes through the chiller and then a water-filled tank, freezing the tank’s contents. During the day, a fan blows over a coolant-filled heat exchange coil to provide cold air. The c

At night, coolant passes through the chiller and then a water-filled tank, freezing the tank’s contents. During the day, a fan blows over a coolant-filled heat exchange coil to provide cold air. The coolant stays chilly by repeatedly passing through the tank of ice.

Because the system charges after hours, owners can take advantage of low energy costs. During the day, grid operators meet rising demand by ramping up additional power plants that sell the most expensive power. When the sun falls, demand drops off and so does the price of electricity.

 continue http://www.popsci.com/how-to-make-an-ice-cube-into-battery

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Two Nuclear Leaks In The United States, One Likely Worse Than Fukushima

This is absolutely disgusting to read about. When a radiation leak happens in Japan the whole world hears about it, but when not one but two radiation leaks happen in the United States no one does. There are radiation leak reports in Miami and New York, why is no one talking about it?

With a little digging, it’s not hard to find multiple sites around the U.S. which have been reported to leak, but since our grossly corrupt mainstream media doesn’t cover “real” news, and instead only acts as the propaganda arm for the Democrat Party, Americans remain clueless about many things they have every right to expect the media to report on. The following article and videos focus on the nuclear facilities located at Indian Point, which is just upriver from NYC, and the Turkey Point Nuclear Generating Station which sits adjacent to Biscayne National Park, Florida.

In the first video, you’ll learn that the Indian Point plant is located upriver from NYC, and it’s a serious threat to the whole region, according to watchdog group Riverkeeper. “It’s a disaster waiting to happen and it should be shut down,” Paul Gallay, president of Riverkeeper, told CBS News. Indian Point has been operating for around 40 years, and generates about 25 percent of the electric power for Westchester and New York City. The plant, owned by Entergy, is leaking tritium, a radioactive substance.

Three of the forty Indian Point wells showed an increase in radioactive material, and one of the wells showed a 65,000 percent increase. Entergy states that this leak will not harm local inhabitants, as the groundwater is located on their property. John J. Kelly, former director of licensing for Indian Point and a certified healthy physicist, said that tritium is a radioactive form of hydrogen that is found naturally. “It’s more of a regulatory problem than an environmental problem,” said Kelly.

continue https://sgtreport.com/2016/07/two-nuclear-leaks-in-the-united-states-one-likely-worse-than-fukushima/

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The Ozone Hole Is Supposedly Healing But There’s Always Been One

More Hole in the ozone layer is finally ‘healing’ … Chlorine reacting with these beautiful stratospheric clouds over Antarctica is the cause of the hole in the ozone layer (Cynthia Spence/NSF) The ozone hole over Antarctica is finally “healing” almost 30 years after the world banned the chemicals responsible for its creation, researchers say.  – ABC

So the Ozone hole is finally healing. Hallelujah.

Here’s a statement reported in the article excerpted above from “ozone hole expert” Professor Susan Solomon:

Professor Solomon said the discovery, published in Science, lent hope for the fight against climate change.  “The ozone example shows that when people engage with environmental problems, policymakers have a basis for making choices,” she said.

“The world decided to take an action on these chemicals, and the planet is responding as we expected. People can take heart by seeing that our choices can help the environment.”

We can see from her statement that humans can take action to make the environment better.

In other words, if government passes the right laws, then the planet can benefit.

Ms. Solomon is encouraged, obviously. More:

… Professor Solomon, from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, said the hole still averages about 17 million square kilometres in size.  “It isn’t completely healed, but it’s better than the 21 million we had around 2000,” she said.

CFC’s were phased out in 1987, but as they float around in the atmosphere for years, any impact must be measured over decades.

Solomon’s optimism was echoed by Dr. Olaf Morgenstern of NIWA in New Zealand.

continue http://www.thedailybell.com/news-analysis/more-fakery-the-ozone-hole-is-supposedly-healing-but-theres-always-been-one/

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